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spix macaw population 2019

Roth found only 5 birds in 1985, three in 1986, and only two after May 1987. References were made to the extreme rarity of the bird and the potential value of it and other endangered species. In 1990 a pair was found in the wild consisting of a male Spix’s macaw and a female blue-winged macaw. It barks the branches of the tree in which it is loose, and may eat the bark. Newest developments in captive breeding programs of this species involved assisted reproduction techniques in the Spix's macaw: In the 2009–2010 breeding season, a research collaboration between Loro Parque Fundación of Tenerife, Canary Islands and the University of Giessen in Germany used a new technique developed for semen collection and tested in many other parrot species on the Spix's macaws. The first 50 Spix’s Macaws will arrive in Brazil at the completed Release Facility by the end of 2019. It has always been very rare in captivity, partly due to the remoteness of its natural range. [19], The Caatinga vegetation of northeastern Bahia (which hosts the Spix habitat) is stunted trees, thorny shrubs and cacti, dominated by plants of the family Euphorbiaceae. The author notes that the study challenges the classification of British ornithologist Nigel Collar in the encyclopedic Handbook of the Birds of the World, volume 4 (1997). 17 birds are still found in Switzerland. It was first described by German naturalist Georg Marcgrave, when he was working in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil in 1638 and it is named for German naturalist Johann Baptist von Spix, who collected a specimen in 1819 on the bank of the Rio São Francisco in northeast Bahia in Brazil. [28], Spix's macaw is named for German naturalist Johann Baptist von Spix, who collected the first specimen in April 1819 near the São Francisco River in the vicinity of Juazeiro[29][30] [Notes 2] Recent authorities cite the type locality as Curaca,[34][35][36] but others say the locality can't be known with certainty. Large mature trees of this species (and apparently no other) provided the nesting hollows of Spix's macaws, as well as shelter and their seedpods, food for the species. Combretum leprosum may also be a possibility. In addition, 45% of the Caatinga dry forest in which the woodland galleries are embedded has been cleared for farms, ranches and plantations. Most macaws have black or gray eyes when young, these changing to yellow or brown as they mature. [65], Spix's macaws choose their own mates independently, so best genetic pairings are not guaranteed. [39], The bird had not been studied in the wild until the 1970s. These actions barely affected the illicit bird trade, but Spix owners were forced underground (consequently complicating the later effort to initiate a captive recovery program). [7] A 2011 study by the same authors which includes key genera of macaws further elucidates the macaw taxonomy: the clade diagram of that study places C. spixii in a clade including the macaw genera which is sister to a clade containing the Aratingas and other smaller parakeets. F.G. Dutton, president of the Avicultural Society U.K. in 1900: "it's more like a conure" ('conure' is not a defined taxon – in Dutton's time, it referred to the archaic genus Conurus; today those would be among the smaller non-macaw parakeets in Arini). [76] Because all known specimens of the Spix's macaw are now in a conservation program run by the Brazilian government, there are now no sources from which the bird may be obtained for the pet trade. A single male, paired with a female blue-winged macaw, was discovered at the site in 1990. The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek kuanos meaning "blue" and psittakos meaning "parrot". Eighty-three of these are participating in an international breeding program managed by the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), the Natural Heritage Branch of the Brazilian Government. [56] Most of these are managed at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), which purchased the population of Birds International and most of the birds in Dr. Hammerli's Swiss collection. [56] Non-invasive DNA testing of plucked feathers has been introduced to determine the gender of the chicks. [51] The Permanent Committee was dissolved in 2002 due to irreconcilable differences between the parties involved. The Spix's at NEST are owned by the Brazilian government and managed by Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation. Other Spixs are located at Loro Parque Foundation, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots (ACTP) in Berlin, Germany, and NEST in Brazil. Under the Sheikh were instituted standards of animal keeping, veterinary care, animal husbandry and stud book records for the conservation of the Spix's. During 2000 a captive female was released in an effort to form a wild pair but unfortunately this bird died of electrocution on a power line. Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. [29], The next reported sighting of the bird wasn't for 84 years, in 1903 by Othmar Reiser of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 400 kilometres (250 mi) west of Juazeiro at Lagoa de Parnaguá (lake at Parnagua) in the State of Piaui. [68], In June 2018, the population of the species numbered approximately 158 individuals and an agreement was signed between the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil and conservation organizations of Belgium (Pairi Daiza Foundation) and Germany (Association for the Conservation of Threatened Parrots) to establish the repatriation of 50 Spix's macaws to Brazil by the first quarter of 2019. In 1974, ornithologist Helmut Sick, based on information from traders and trappers, extended the possible range of the Spix's macaw to embrace the northeastern part of the state of Goias and the southern part of the state of Maranhao. [71], The bird was exceedingly rare in aviculture, the few being held by wealthy collectors rather than privately as pets. The final macaw to have been sighted was male who had paired up with an illigers macaw. The 7th of June 2019 will be remembered as the day that the agreement to bring the Spix’s Macaw back to the wild was confirmed. [52] In 1997, the Loro Parque Foundation returned the ownership to the Government of Brazil of all the Spix's macaws held in its facilities. Spix's macaw is the only known species of the genus Cyanopsitta. Later in the episode he reveals that the eggs have been taken away by Egg Protective Services after he accidentally made an omelet in front of them. (What we now know about its habitat and probable range casts doubt on this observation[38]) Reiser had also seen one in captivity at a railway station in Remanso. [6][7], In 1638 Georg Marcgrave was the first European naturalist to observe and describe the species; however, it is named for Johann Baptist von Spix, who collected the type specimen in April 1819 in Brazil, but gave it the misnomer Arara hyacinthinus not realizing till later that the name collided with Psittacus hyacinthinus, the name assigned to the hyacinth macaw described by John Lathan in 1790. [64], All or nearly all hatched chicks in the breeding program are hand raised by experienced staff, to reduce the risk of losing a scarce live chick (only about one out of ten viable eggs laid hatch). Upon completion we will commence the transfer of birds from Germany to the RBRC in preparation for the first release of Spix’s into the wild, which is planned to take place in 2021. The count does not include an unverifiable number of birds in private hands.[63]. "IBAMA dissolves the Spix’s Macaw Recovery Committee" (2002). In the 2013 breeding season veterinarians and scientists from Parrot Reproduction Consulting, a German veterinary practice focused on parrot reproduction medicine, and Al Wabra developed new specific strategies for semen collection and artificial insemination of the Spix's macaw. [50], In 1990, the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA, Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) established the Permanent Committee for the Recovery of Spix's Macaw, called CPRAA, and its Ararinha Azul project (Little Blue Macaw project) in order to conserve the species. [5] The species name spixii is a Latinized form of the surname "von Spix", hence Cyanopsitta spixii means "blue parrot of Spix". By the time scientists became interested in the macaws, their numbers were already very low. Beginning around 1980, at the very height of the illegal bird trade, traders and trappers removed dozens of Spix's from the wild, and by the early 80s, it was generally believed to be extinct in the wild.

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